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REMICADE® is indicated for:
- reducing signs and symptoms and inducing and maintaining clinical remission in adult patients with moderately to severely active Crohn's disease (CD) who have had an inadequate response to conventional therapy.
- reducing the number of draining enterocutaneous and rectovaginal fistulas and maintaining fistula closure in adult patients with fistulizing CD.
Pediatric Crohn's Disease
REMICADE® is indicated for reducing signs and symptoms and inducing and maintaining clinical remission in pediatric patients 6 years of age and older with moderately to severely active CD who have had an inadequate response to conventional therapy.
REMICADE® is indicated for reducing signs and symptoms, inducing and maintaining clinical remission and mucosal healing, and eliminating corticosteroid use in adult patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (UC) who have had an inadequate response to conventional therapy.
Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis
REMICADE® is indicated for reducing signs and symptoms and inducing and maintaining clinical remission in pediatric patients 6 years of age and older with moderately to severely active UC who have had an inadequate response to conventional therapy.
REMICADE®, in combination with methotrexate, is indicated for reducing signs and symptoms, inhibiting the progression of structural damage, and improving physical function in adult patients with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
REMICADE® is indicated for reducing signs and symptoms in adult patients with active ankylosing spondylitis (AS).
REMICADE® is indicated for reducing signs and symptoms of active arthritis, inhibiting the progression of structural damage, and improving physical function in adult patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA).
REMICADE® is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with chronic severe (i.e., extensive and/or disabling) plaque psoriasis (Ps) who are candidates for systemic therapy and when other systemic therapies are medically less appropriate. REMICADE® should only be administered to patients who will be closely monitored and have regular follow-up visits with a physician.
Patients treated with REMICADE® (infliximab) are at increased risk for developing serious infections that may lead to hospitalization or death. Most patients who developed these infections were taking concomitant immunosuppressants such as methotrexate or corticosteroids. Discontinue REMICADE® if a patient develops a serious infection or sepsis.
Reported infections include:
- Active tuberculosis (TB), including reactivation of latent TB. Patients frequently presented with disseminated or extrapulmonary disease. Patients should be tested for latent TB before and during treatment with REMICADE®.1,2 Treatment for latent infection should be initiated prior to treatment with REMICADE®.
- Invasive fungal infections, including histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, candidiasis, aspergillosis, blastomycosis, pneumocystosis, and cryptococcosis. Patients may present with disseminated, rather than localized, disease. Empiric anti-fungal therapy should be considered in patients at risk for invasive fungal infections who develop severe systemic illness.
- Bacterial, viral, and other infections due to opportunistic pathogens, including Legionella, Listeria, and Salmonella.
The risks and benefits of treatment with REMICADE® should be carefully considered prior to initiating therapy in patients with chronic or recurrent infection. Closely monitor patients for the development of signs and symptoms of infection during and after treatment with REMICADE®, including the possible development of TB in patients who tested negative for latent TB infection prior to initiating therapy, who are on treatment for latent TB, or who were previously treated for TB infection.
Risk of infection may be higher in patients greater than 65 years of age, pediatric patients, patients with co-morbid conditions and/or patients taking concomitant immunosuppressant therapy. In clinical trials, other serious infections observed in patients treated with REMICADE® included pneumonia, cellulitis, abscess, and skin ulceration.
Lymphoma and other malignancies, some fatal, have been reported in children and adolescent patients treated with TNF blockers, including REMICADE®. Approximately half of these cases were lymphomas, including Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The other cases represented a variety of malignancies, including rare malignancies that are usually associated with immunosuppression and malignancies that are not usually observed in children and adolescents. The malignancies occurred after a median of 30 months after the first dose of therapy. Most of the patients were receiving concomitant immunosuppressants.
Postmarketing cases of hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma, a rare type of T-cell lymphoma, have been reported in patients treated with TNF blockers, including REMICADE®. These cases have had a very aggressive disease course and have been fatal. The majority of reported REMICADE® cases have occurred in patients with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis and most were in adolescent and young adult males. Almost all of these patients had received treatment with azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine concomitantly with REMICADE® at or prior to diagnosis. Carefully assess the risks and benefits of treatment with REMICADE®, especially in these patient types.
In clinical trials of all TNF blockers, more cases of lymphoma were observed compared with controls and the expected rate in the general population. However, patients with Crohn’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, or plaque psoriasis may be at higher risk for developing lymphoma. In clinical trials of some TNF inhibitors, including REMICADE®, more cases of other malignancies were observed compared with controls. The rate of these malignancies among patients treated with REMICADE® was similar to that expected in the general population whereas the rate in control patients was lower than expected. Cases of acute and chronic leukemia have been reported with postmarketing TNF-blocker use. As the potential role of TNF blockers in the development of malignancies is not known, caution should be exercised when considering treatment of patients with a current or a past history of malignancy or other risk factors such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Melanoma and Merkel cell carcinoma have been reported in patients treated with TNF-blocker therapy, including REMICADE®. Periodic skin examination is recommended for all patients, particularly those with risk factors for skin cancer.
A population-based retrospective cohort study found a 2- to 3-fold increase in the incidence of invasive cervical cancer in women with rheumatoid arthritis treated with REMICADE® compared to biologics-naïve patients or the general population, particularly those over 60 years of age. A causal relationship between REMICADE® and cervical cancer cannot be excluded. Periodic screening should continue in women treated with REMICADE®.
The use of REMICADE® at doses >5 mg/kg is contraindicated in patients with moderate or severe heart failure. REMICADE® is contraindicated in patients with a previous severe hypersensitivity reaction to infliximab or any of the inactive ingredients of REMICADE® or any murine proteins (severe hypersensitivity reactions have included anaphylaxis, hypotension, and serum sickness).
HEPATITIS B REACTIVATION
TNF blockers, including REMICADE®, have been associated with reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in patients who are chronic carriers. Some cases were fatal. Patients should be tested for HBV infection before initiating REMICADE®. For patients who test positive, consult a physician with expertise in the treatment of hepatitis B. Exercise caution when prescribing REMICADE® for patients identified as carriers of HBV and monitor closely for active HBV infection during and following termination of therapy with REMICADE®. Discontinue REMICADE® in patients who develop HBV reactivation and initiate antiviral therapy with appropriate supportive treatment. Exercise caution when considering resumption of REMICADE® and monitor patients closely.
Severe hepatic reactions, including acute liver failure, jaundice, hepatitis, and cholestasis have been reported in patients receiving REMICADE® postmarketing. Some cases were fatal or required liver transplant. Aminotransferase elevations were not noted prior to discovery of liver injury in many cases. Patients with symptoms or signs of liver dysfunction should be evaluated for evidence of liver injury. If jaundice and/or marked liver enzyme elevations (eg, ≥5 times the upper limit of normal) develop, REMICADE® should be discontinued, and a thorough investigation of the abnormality should be undertaken.
In a randomized, placebo-controlled study in patients with moderate or severe heart failure (NYHA Functional Class III/IV), higher mortality rates and a higher risk of hospitalization were observed at Week 28 at a dose of 10 mg/kg and higher rates of cardiovascular events were observed at both 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg. There have been postmarketing reports of new onset and worsening heart failure, with and without identifiable precipitating factors. Patients with moderate or severe heart failure taking REMICADE® (≤5 mg/kg) or patients with mild heart failure should be closely monitored and treatment should be discontinued if new or worsening symptoms appear.
Cases of leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and pancytopenia (some fatal) have been reported. The causal relationship to REMICADE® therapy remains unclear. Exercise caution in patients who have ongoing or a history of significant hematologic abnormalities. Advise patients to seek immediate medical attention if they develop signs and symptoms of blood dyscrasias or infection. Consider discontinuation of REMICADE® in patients who develop significant hematologic abnormalities.
REMICADE® has been associated with hypersensitivity reactions that differ in their time of onset. Anaphylaxis, acute urticaria, dyspnea, and hypotension have occurred in association with infusions of REMICADE®. Medications for the treatment of hypersensitivity reactions should be available.
CARDIOVASCULAR AND CEREBROVASCULAR REACTIONS DURING AND AFTER INFUSION
Serious cerebrovascular accidents, myocardial ischemia/infarction (some fatal), hypotension, hypertension, and arrhythmias have been reported during and within 24 hours of initiation of REMICADE® infusion. Cases of transient visual loss have been reported during or within 2 hours of REMICADE® infusion. Monitor patients during infusion and if a serious reaction occurs, discontinue infusion. Manage reactions according to signs and symptoms.
TNF blockers, including REMICADE®, have been associated with CNS manifestation of systemic vasculitis, seizure, and new onset or exacerbation of CNS demyelinating disorders, including multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis, and peripheral demyelinating disorders, including Guillain-Barré syndrome. Exercise caution when considering REMICADE® in patients with these disorders and consider discontinuation if these disorders develop.
CONCURRENT ADMINISTRATION WITH OTHER BIOLOGICS
Concurrent use of REMICADE® with anakinra, abatacept, tocilizumab, or other biologics used to treat the same conditions as REMICADE® is not recommended because of the possibility of an increased risk of infection. Care should be taken when switching from one biologic to another, since overlapping biological activity may further increase the risk of infection.
Treatment with REMICADE® may result in the formation of autoantibodies and in the development of a lupus-like syndrome. Discontinue treatment if symptoms of a lupus-like syndrome develop.
VACCINATIONS AND USE OF LIVE VACCINES/THERAPEUTIC INFECTIOUS AGENTS
Prior to initiating REMICADE®, update vaccinations in accordance with current vaccination guidelines. Live vaccines or therapeutic infectious agents should not be given with REMICADE® due to the possibility of clinical infections, including disseminated infections.
At least a 6-month waiting period following birth is recommended before the administration of any live vaccine to infants exposed in utero to REMICADE®.
In clinical trials, the most common adverse reactions occurring in >10% of REMICADE®-treated patients included infections (eg, upper respiratory, sinusitis, and pharyngitis), infusion-related reactions, headache, and abdominal pain.
References: 1. American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Targeted tuberculin testing and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;161:S221-S247. 2. See latest Centers for Disease Control guidelines and recommendations for tuberculosis testing in immunocompromised patients.
STELARA® (ustekinumab) is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with active psoriatic arthritis. STELARA® can be used alone or in combination with methotrexate (MTX).
STELARA® (ustekinumab) is indicated for the treatment of patients 6 years or older with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis who are candidates for phototherapy or systemic therapy.
STELARA® (ustekinumab) is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with moderately to severely active Crohn’s disease.
STELARA® (ustekinumab) is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis.
STELARA® (ustekinumab) is contraindicated in patients with clinically significant hypersensitivity to ustekinumab or to any of the excipients.
STELARA® may increase the risk of infections and reactivation of latent infections. Serious bacterial, mycobacterial, fungal, and viral infections requiring hospitalization or otherwise clinically significant infections were reported. In patients with psoriasis, these included diverticulitis, cellulitis, pneumonia, appendicitis, cholecystitis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, viral infections, gastroenteritis, and urinary tract infections. In patients with psoriatic arthritis, this included cholecystitis. In patients with Crohn’s disease, these included anal abscess, gastroenteritis, ophthalmic herpes zoster, pneumonia, and Listeria meningitis. In patients with ulcerative colitis, these included gastroenteritis, ophthalmic herpes zoster, pneumonia, and listeriosis.
Treatment with STELARA® should not be initiated in patients with a clinically important active infection until the infection resolves or is adequately treated. Consider the risks and benefits of treatment prior to initiating use of STELARA® in patients with a chronic infection or a history of recurrent infection. Instruct patients to seek medical advice if signs or symptoms suggestive of an infection occur while on treatment with STELARA® and consider discontinuing STELARA® for serious or clinically significant infections until the infection resolves or is adequately treated.
Theoretical Risk for Vulnerability to Particular Infections
Individuals genetically deficient in IL-12/IL-23 are particularly vulnerable to disseminated infections from mycobacteria, Salmonella, and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccinations. Serious infections and fatal outcomes have been reported in such patients. It is not known whether patients with pharmacologic blockade of IL-12/IL-23 from treatment with STELARA® may be susceptible to these types of infections. Appropriate diagnostic testing should be considered (eg, tissue culture, stool culture) as dictated by clinical circumstances.
Pre-Treatment Evaluation of Tuberculosis (TB)
Evaluate patients for TB prior to initiating treatment with STELARA®. Do not administer STELARA® to patients with active tuberculosis infection. Initiate treatment of latent TB before administering STELARA®. Closely monitor patients receiving STELARA® for signs and symptoms of active TB during and after treatment.
STELARA® is an immunosuppressant and may increase the risk of malignancy. Malignancies were reported among patients who received STELARA® in clinical studies. The safety of STELARA® has not been evaluated in patients who have a history of malignancy or who have a known malignancy. There have been reports of the rapid appearance of multiple cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas in patients receiving STELARA® who had risk factors for developing non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). All patients receiving STELARA®, especially those >60 years or those with a history of PUVA or prolonged immunosuppressant treatment, should be monitored for the appearance of NMSC.
Hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis and angioedema, have been reported with STELARA®. If an anaphylactic or other clinically significant hypersensitivity reaction occurs, institute appropriate therapy and discontinue STELARA®.
Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome (RPLS)
One case of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) was observed in clinical studies of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. No cases of RPLS were observed in clinical studies of Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis. If RPLS is suspected, administer appropriate treatment and discontinue STELARA®. RPLS is a neurological disorder, which is not caused by an infection or demyelination. RPLS can present with headache, seizures, confusion, and visual disturbances. RPLS has been associated with fatal outcomes.
Prior to initiating therapy with STELARA®, patients should receive all age-appropriate immunizations recommended by current guidelines. Patients being treated with STELARA® should not receive live vaccines. BCG vaccines should not be given during treatment or within one year of initiating or discontinuing STELARA®. Exercise caution when administering live vaccines to household contacts of STELARA® patients, as shedding and subsequent transmission to STELARA® patients may occur. Non-live vaccinations received during a course of STELARA® may not elicit an immune response sufficient to prevent disease.
The safety of STELARA® in combination with other biologic immunosuppressive agents or phototherapy was not evaluated in clinical studies of psoriasis. Ultraviolet-induced skin cancers developed earlier and more frequently in mice. In psoriasis studies, the relevance of findings in mouse models for malignancy risk in humans is unknown. In psoriatic arthritis studies, concomitant methotrexate use did not appear to influence the safety or efficacy of STELARA®. In Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis induction studies, concomitant use of 6-mercaptopurine, azathioprine, methotrexate, and corticosteroids did not appear to influence the overall safety or efficacy of STELARA®.
Cases of interstitial pneumonia, eosinophilic pneumonia, and cryptogenic organizing pneumonia have been reported during post-approval use of STELARA®. Clinical presentations included cough, dyspnea, and interstitial infiltrates following one to three doses. Serious outcomes have included respiratory failure and prolonged hospitalization. Patients improved with discontinuation of therapy and, in certain cases, administration of corticosteroids. If diagnosis is confirmed, discontinue STELARA® and institute appropriate treatment.
STELARA® may decrease the protective effect of allergen immunotherapy (decrease tolerance) which may increase the risk of an allergic reaction to a dose of allergen immunotherapy. Therefore, caution should be exercised in patients receiving or who have received allergen immunotherapy, particularly for anaphylaxis.
Most Common Adverse Reactions
The most common adverse reactions (≥3% and higher than that with placebo) in adults from psoriasis clinical studies for STELARA® 45 mg, STELARA® 90 mg, or placebo were: nasopharyngitis (8%, 7%, 8%), upper respiratory tract infection (5%, 4%, 5%), headache (5%, 5%, 3%), and fatigue (3%, 3%, 2%), respectively. The safety profile in pediatric patients with plaque psoriasis was similar to that of adults with plaque psoriasis. In psoriatic arthritis (PsA) studies, a higher incidence of arthralgia and nausea was observed in patients treated with STELARA® when compared with placebo (3% vs 1% for both). In Crohn’s disease induction studies, common adverse reactions (3% or more of patients treated with STELARA® and higher than placebo) reported through Week 8 for STELARA® 6 mg/kg intravenous single infusion or placebo included: vomiting (4% vs 3%). In the Crohn’s disease maintenance study, common adverse reactions (3% or more of patients treated with STELARA® and higher than placebo) reported through Week 44 for STELARA® 90 mg subcutaneous injection or placebo were: nasopharyngitis (11% vs 8%), injection site erythema (5% vs 0%), vulvovaginal candidiasis/mycotic infection (5% vs 1%), bronchitis (5% vs 3%), pruritus (4% vs 2%), urinary tract infection (4% vs 2%) and sinusitis (3% vs 2%). In the ulcerative colitis induction study, common adverse reactions (3% or more of patients treated with STELARA® and higher than placebo) reported through Week 8 for STELARA® 6 mg/kg intravenous single infusion or placebo included: nasopharyngitis (7% vs 4%). In the ulcerative colitis maintenance study, common adverse reactions (3% or more of patients treated with STELARA® and higher than placebo) reported through Week 44 for STELARA® 90 mg subcutaneous injection or placebo included: nasopharyngitis (24% vs 20%), headache (10% vs 4%), abdominal pain (7% vs 3%), influenza (6% vs 5%), fever (5% vs 4%), diarrhea (4% vs 1%), sinusitis (4% vs 1%), fatigue (4% vs 2%), and nausea (3% vs 2%).
TREMFYA® (guselkumab) is indicated for the treatment of adults with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis who are candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy.
TREMFYA® is indicated for the treatment of adults with active psoriatic arthritis.
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Serious hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, have been reported with postmarket use of TREMFYA®. Some cases required hospitalization. If a serious hypersensitivity reaction occurs, discontinue TREMFYA® and initiate appropriate therapy.
TREMFYA® may increase the risk of infection. Treatment with TREMFYA® should not be initiated in patients with a clinically important active infection until the infection resolves or is adequately treated.
Consider the risks and benefits of treatment prior to prescribing TREMFYA® in patients with a chronic infection or a history of recurrent infection. Instruct patients receiving TREMFYA® to seek medical help if signs or symptoms of clinically important chronic or acute infection occur. If a patient develops a clinically important or serious infection, or is not responding to standard therapy, closely monitor and discontinue TREMFYA® until the infection resolves.
Pre-Treatment Evaluation for Tuberculosis (TB)
Evaluate patients for TB infection prior to initiating treatment with TREMFYA®. Initiate treatment of latent TB prior to administering TREMFYA®. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of active TB during and after TREMFYA® treatment. Do not administer TREMFYA® to patients with active TB infection.
Prior to initiating TREMFYA®, consider completion of all age-appropriate immunizations according to current immunization guidelines. Avoid use of live vaccines in patients treated with TREMFYA®.
Most common (≥1%) adverse reactions associated with TREMFYA® include upper respiratory infections, headache, injection site reactions, arthralgia, bronchitis, diarrhea, gastroenteritis, tinea infections, and herpes simplex infections.
The overall safety profile observed in patients with psoriatic arthritis is generally consistent with the safety profile in patients with plaque psoriasis, with the addition of bronchitis and neutrophil count decreased.