Contraindications: RISPERDAL CONSTA® is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to risperidone, paliperidone, or to any excipients in RISPERDAL CONSTA®.
Cerebrovascular Adverse Events (CAEs): CAEs (e.g., stroke, transient ischemia attacks), including fatalities, were reported in placebo-controlled trials in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis taking oral risperidone. The incidence of CAEs was significantly higher than with placebo. RISPERDAL CONSTA® is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis.
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS): NMS, a potentially fatal symptom complex, has been reported in association with antipsychotic drugs.
Clinical manifestations of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status including delirium, and autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and cardiac dysrhythmia). Additional signs may include elevated creatine phosphokinase, myoglobinuria (rhabdomyolysis), and acute renal failure.
If NMS is suspected, immediately discontinue RISPERDAL CONSTA® and provide symptomatic treatment and monitoring.
Tardive Dyskinesia (TD): TD, a syndrome consisting of potentially irreversible, involuntary, dyskinetic movements, may develop in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs. Although the prevalence of the syndrome appears to be highest among the elderly, especially elderly women, it is impossible to predict which patients will develop the syndrome. Whether antipsychotic drug products differ in their potential to cause tardive dyskinesia is unknown.
The risk of developing TD and the likelihood that it will become irreversible appear to increase with the duration of treatment and the cumulative dose. The syndrome can develop after relatively brief treatment periods, even at low doses. It may also occur after discontinuation. TD may remit, partially or completely, if antipsychotic treatment is discontinued. Antipsychotic treatment itself, however, may suppress (or partially suppress) the signs and symptoms of the syndrome, possibly masking the underlying process. The effect that symptomatic suppression has upon the long-term course of the syndrome is unknown.
If signs and symptoms of TD appear in a patient on RISPERDAL CONSTA®, drug discontinuation should be considered. However, some patients may require treatment with RISPERDAL CONSTA® despite the presence of the syndrome. In patients who do require chronic treatment, use the lowest dose and the shortest duration of treatment producing a satisfactory clinical response. Periodically reassess the need for continued treatment.
Metabolic Changes: Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been associated with metabolic changes that may increase cardiovascular/cerebrovascular risk. These metabolic changes include hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and body weight gain. While all of the drugs in the class have been shown to produce some metabolic changes, each drug has its own specific risk profile.
Hyperglycemia and Diabetes Mellitus: Hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus, some cases extreme and associated with ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar coma or death, have been reported in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics (APS), including RISPERDAL CONSTA®. Patients starting treatment with APS who have or are at risk for diabetes mellitus should undergo fasting blood glucose testing at the beginning of and during treatment. Patients who develop symptoms of hyperglycemia should also undergo fasting blood glucose testing. All patients treated with atypical antipsychotics should be monitored for symptoms of hyperglycemia. Monitor glucose regularly in patients with diabetes or at risk for diabetes. Some patients require continuation of anti-diabetic treatment despite discontinuation of the suspect drug.
Dyslipidemia: Undesirable alterations have been observed in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics.
Weight Gain: Weight gain has been observed with atypical antipsychotic use. Clinical monitoring of weight is recommended.
Hyperprolactinemia: As with other drugs that antagonize dopamine D2 receptors, risperidone elevates prolactin levels and the elevation persists during chronic administration. Risperidone is associated with higher levels of prolactin elevation than other antipsychotic agents.
Orthostatic Hypotension and Syncope: RISPERDAL CONSTA® may induce orthostatic hypotension in some patients due to its alpha-adrenergic blocking activity. RISPERDAL CONSTA® should be used with caution in patients with known cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease or conditions that would predispose patients to hypotension (e.g., dehydration, hypovolemia, treatment with antihypertensive medications). Monitoring should be considered in patients for whom this may be of concern.
Falls: Somnolence, postural hypotension, motor and sensory instability have been reported with the use of antipsychotics, including RISPERDAL CONSTA®, which may lead to falls and, consequently, fractures or other fall-related injuries. For patients, particularly the elderly, with diseases, conditions, or medications that could exacerbate these effects, assess the risk of falls when initiating antipsychotic treatment and recurrently for patients on long-term antipsychotic therapy.
Leukopenia, Neutropenia and Agranulocytosis have been reported with antipsychotics, including RISPERDAL CONSTA®. Patients with a history of clinically significant low white blood cell count (WBC) or drug-induced leukopenia/neutropenia should have frequent complete blood cell counts during the first few months of therapy. At the first sign of a clinically significant decline in WBC, and in the absence of other causative factors, discontinuation of RISPERDAL CONSTA® should be considered. Patients with clinically significant neutropenia should be carefully monitored for fever or other symptoms or signs of infection and treated promptly if such symptoms or signs occur. Patients with severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count <1000/mm3) should discontinue RISPERDAL CONSTA® and have their WBC followed until recovery.
Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment: Somnolence was reported in multiple trials in subjects treated with RISPERDAL CONSTA®. Since RISPERDAL CONSTA® has the potential to impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills, patients should be cautioned about operating hazardous machinery, including motor vehicles, until they are reasonably certain that RISPERDAL CONSTA® does not adversely affect them.
Seizures: RISPERDAL CONSTA® should be used cautiously in patients with a history of seizures.
Dysphagia: Esophageal dysmotility and aspiration have been associated with antipsychotic drug use. Aspiration pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with advanced Alzheimer’s dementia. Use cautiously in patients at risk for aspiration pneumonia.
Priapism has been reported. Severe priapism may require surgical intervention.
Body Temperature Regulation: Disruption of body temperature regulation has been attributed to antipsychotic agents. Both hyperthermia and hypothermia have been reported in association with RISPERDAL CONSTA® use.
Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) has been reported.
Administration: For intramuscular injection only. Care should be taken to avoid inadvertent injection into a blood vessel.
Increased sensitivity in patients with Parkinson’s disease or those with dementia with Lewy bodies has been reported. Manifestations and features are consistent with NMS.
Use RISPERDAL CONSTA® with caution in patients with conditions and medical conditions that could affect metabolism or hemodynamic responses (e.g., recent myocardial infarction or unstable cardiac disease).
Pregnancy/Nursing: RISPERDAL CONSTA® may cause extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms in neonates with third trimester exposure. Advise patients to notify their healthcare professional if they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant during treatment with RISPERDAL CONSTA®. Patients should be advised that there is a pregnancy registry that monitors outcomes in women exposed to RISPERDAL CONSTA® during pregnancy. RISPERDAL CONSTA® can pass into human breast milk. The benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for RISPERDAL CONSTA® and any potential adverse effect on the breastfed infant from RISPERDAL CONSTA® or the mother’s underlying condition.
Fertility: RISPERDAL CONSTA® may cause a reversible reduction in fertility in females.
Commonly Observed Adverse Reactions for RISPERDAL CONSTA®: The most common adverse reactions in clinical trials in patients with schizophrenia (≥5%) were headache, Parkinsonism, dizziness, akathisia, fatigue, constipation, dyspepsia, sedation, weight increase, pain in extremities, and dry mouth. The most common adverse reactions in clinical trials in patients with bipolar disorder were weight increased (5% in monotherapy trial) and tremor and Parkinsonism (≥10% in adjunctive therapy trial).
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